What we should do?
- Always keep the baby neat and clean.
- Cut the nails properly with utmost care.
- Wet nappy should be removed and parts should be cleaned with soap.
- Take care of the genitals because fungal infection is common in that area. Parts should be kept dry.
- Care of the scalp is very important.Fungal infections, dermatitis etc can be prevented by proper cleaning.
- Tight dress can cause irritation, hence dress should be loose and should allow entry of air.
- Room should have sufficient light and ventilation.It should be free from dust and insects.
- Separate bed preferably water proof is needed for kids .It should be arranged near mother’s bed.
- Always keep some music making toys near the baby.
- While carrying the baby support the head with hand.Since the neck muscles are weak sudden fall of head can be dangerous.
- Mothers milk is the best nutrition for the baby,it also gives emotional attachment.Breast milk should be given as per the babies need preferably in mother sitting position.Proper cleaning of nipple is also necessary.Mother should take good nutritious diet throughout lactating period.
- If there is some contraindication for breast feeding cows milk can be given.Feeding bottle should be cleaned with warm water and should be kept dry till next use.
- Cows milk should be boiled and cooled. Some diseases like bovine tuberculosis spread through raw milk.
- Some children are allergic to some substances like food,milk,dress,cosmetics etc. Try to find out the material causing allergy and avoid such things.
- Mosquito nets should be used regularly.Diseases like malaria,dengue ,yellow fever and etc spread through mosquito bites. Mosquito bite can also produce skin eruptions with some allergic reactions. It also disturbs sound sleep.
- A calm atmosphere should be maintained for a good sleep.Compared to adults infants need more sleep.It is said that growth hormone secretion is activated during sleep.
- Growth development, behavioral development, motor development, personal social development, language development etc should be noted down in relation to age. However parents need not be over anxious because slight variations are seen from individual to individual.
- Assessment of growth by measuring height and weight is necessary.
- In the early months of life infant may defecate after every feed.Proper toilet training should be given when the infant grows. The infant can be placed on the toilet seat by the age of ten months.
- The toilet seat (potty seat) should be cleaned with antiseptic liquid before and after use.It should not be shared by other children.
- If the baby shows some signs of distress like excessive crying,convulsions,fever with rigor,stiffness of neck,frequent vomiting and diarrhea, bluish discoloration of the body,difficult breathing with grunting, etc pay attention and consult your doctor.
- A first aid box should be kept in the room ,which should contain sterile cotton,dressing materials,antiseptic lotion and ointment and forceps. Separate book should be maintained to note down the phone numbers of doctors, ambulance,police etc.
- Child’s medicines should be kept in separate box.Information regarding dose and mode of administration should be written in a paper and affixed on the box.
- While driving keep the baby in separate seat belt.
- When you are going out with the baby keep an identity card with your phone number and address inside his small pocket.
- When the infant starts walking always accompany him to prevent a fall and injuries thereby.
- In emergencies take the first aid measures and take the victim to nearby hospital.
Choking :–The baby may swallow some solid objects and cause obstruction. Immediately make the baby to lie on the abdomen in head low position and press the abdomen backwards and towards the chest. Stroking the upper back is also useful. If no result call a trained person to take the material with the help of forceps.
Accidental poisoning:– Try to takeout the poisonous substance and induce vomiting (except kerosine & acids). Wash the body with water to reduce absorption through skin.Identify the poison and take the victim to the hospital.
Burns:–First of all remove the source of heat and put clean cold water. Burned cloths should not be removed immediately. Cover the wound with sterile cotton and take to nearby hospital.
Wounds :–Clean the wound with clean water and stop the bleeding by compressing,raising the wound above the level of heart or use a tourniquet to compress blood vessels. Then dress the wound with sterile cotton and bandage and consult a doctor.
Drowning in bath tub:–Take the baby immediately and keep in head low position ,press the abdomen gently or give a mouth to mouth sucking till the air way is clear. Give mouth to mouth breathing and cardiac massage and take the victim to the hospital.
Electric shock:–Stop the source of current. Then observe the victim,if no breathing give mouth to mouth breath along with cardiac massage and take to the hospital.
What we should not do?
- Never shake the baby, it can cause damage to the brain.
- Don’t keep any small articles near the baby.
- Sharp pointed articles like pen, pencil, etc should not be given to kids.
- Avoid entry of water in to the ear while giving a bath.
- Food should not be given forcibly when the baby is crying or coughing continuously.
- Should not overfeed the baby.
- Articles like mosquito repellents, moth balls, ink, gum, medicines, etc. should be kept away.
- Avoid tight clothing’s.
- Should not be placed near the edge of the bed.
- Should not give the baby to strangers and avoid close contact with others.
- All electrical instruments should be kept away,and bed should not be arranged near electrical sockets and wires.
- Kitchen is a dangerous place for children.Don’t keep them alone in the kitchen.
- Water level in the bath tub should be minimum and don’t go for any other works (to get a phone call or calling bell, etc.) when the baby is in the tub.
- Avoid smoking inside the house.
- Should not allow pet animals to be in very close contact with the kids. (Anti rabies injections should be given to pets and cut their nails properly)
- When the child starts walking should not be kept alone on the upstairs and should not allow them to climb the steps.
- Strong light should be avoided in the room.
- When you are traveling don’t give the food articles given by co passengers.
- Baby should not be allowed to crawl on the soil.
- If you are sick or someone else is sick be away from the kids.
- Don’t take the baby to hospital wards,crowded market places and polluted dusty areas.
- Table lamp should not be kept near the kids,this will attract insects at night and cause problems.
- Others medicine should not be given to the children.
- Medicine which has crossed the expiration date should not be used.